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UNCLOS Article 234

This article authorizes coastal states to develop and administer special regulations dealing with human activities in ice-covered waters. This grant of authority supports regulatory activities such as those carried out under Canada’s Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act. Article 234 seeks to upgrade coastal state authority, without abrogating the rights of others to innocent or transit passage.
Article 234

Ice-covered areas
Coastal States have the right to adopt and enforce non-discriminatory laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from vessels in ice-covered areas within the limits of the exclusive economic zone, where particularly severe climatic conditions and the presence of ice covering such areas for most of the year create obstructions or exceptional hazards to navigation, and pollution of the marine environment could cause major harm to or irreversible disturbance of the ecological balance. Such laws and regulations shall have due regard to navigation and the protection and preservation of the marine environment based on the best available scientific evidence."